Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade. Like other forms of radiation therapy, it is usually used to treat cancer. Radiosurgery was originally defined by the Swedish neurosurgeon Lars Leksell as “a single high dose fraction of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest”. the word stereotactic refers to a three-dimensional coordinate system that enables accurate correlation of a virtual target seen in the patient’s diagnostic images with the actual target position in the patient.
Technological improvements in medical imaging and computing have led to increased clinical adoption of stereotactic radiosurgery and have broadened its scope in recent years. Not with standing these improvements, the localization accuracy and precision that are implicit in the word “stereotactic” remain of utmost importance for radiosurgical interventions today. Stereotactic accuracy and precision are significantly increased by using a device known as the N-localizer that was invented by the American physician and computer scientist Russell Brown and that has achieved widespread clinical use in several stereotactic surgical and radiosurgical systems.